Quasiturbine Pneumatic and Hydrogen Fuel cell :
A perfect Match (using liquid nitrogen) ! 

Hydrogen Fuel cells heat recovery solution


Liquid nitrogen is somewhat a reject of the oxygen distillation process, and is consequently relatively affordable.
To avoid energy consumption in the high temperature latent heat (like the water evaporation for example),
and better invest this energy in an extreme overheating, which increases the thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle,
we propose a thermo-pneumatic open cycle, making use of a nitrogen evaporator
which can be the Quasiturbine itself (which then act as a "flash steam generator").
See http://quasiturbine.promci.qc.ca/QTVapeur.html )
followed or not by an overheater (or overheating the Quasiturbine itself).

Since the hydrogen fuel cell produces up-to 50% of its power in heat
and needs an excellent cooling to operate,
why not cool it down with liquid nitrogen, which vaporisation under closed reservoir
would permit to generate gas under pressure directly usable in a Quasiturbine pneumatic.
Here is a perfect match between 2 complementary technologies !
Later, the Quasiturbine Stirling could also be used to assist additional heat recovery.

The world of new ecological energy often consider sources 2 orders of magnitude under the petroleum.
Assuming that an ambient temperature heat source is always available for free,
a gallon of liquid nitrogen contains only 10 to15 times less mechanical energy than a gallon of gasoline, and it is zero pollution !
[Specific energy greater than 110 W-h/kg-LN2 (90 W-h/l-LN2 or 400 kJ/kg-LN2)
without relying on isothermal expanders (which double the energy output).
Gasoline mechanical energy is around 1 third (18% in transportation) of 9600 W-h/liter.
Best lead batteries have ~30 W-h/liter-lead]
(liquid nitrogen is pure mechanical energy, while gasoline is 1/3 mechanical, 2/3 thermal).
This high performance cycle is specially simple to built, non polluant, and appear well suitable for mobile units.
It does also fit very well the pure thermal sources, like the solar energy thermal conversion stations.
This concept also allow to conceive a working cycle in which the heat quantity given to the liquid nitrogen
is such that the exhaust temperature after expansion is equal to the ambient temperature !
(See also the CRYOCAR zero pollution using liquid nitrogen, form the University of Washington state:
http://www.aa.washington.edu/AERP/CRYOCAR/HomePage/Index.htm )

As the output efficiency grows quickly with overheat, we propose to use in addition a small burner with propane for example, to overheat gas nitrogen (and consequently the Quasiturbine itself), so that temperatures of exhausts after adiabatic cooling become about 100 degrees Celsius or more. This mode allows several advantages:

Quasiturbine Pneumatic
See : http://quasiturbine.promci.qc.ca/QTPneumatique.html

Quasiturbine Stirling
See : http://quasiturbine.promci.qc.ca/QTStirling.html

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Quasiturbine Pneumatique Inc., Promotional Agent for the Quasiturbine Continuous Combustion Rotary Engine or Compressor
Casier 2804, 3535 Ave Papineau, Montréal Québec H2K 4J9 CANADA (514) 527-8484 Fax (514) 527-9530
http://quasiturbine.promci.qc.ca             quasiturbine@promci.qc.ca